Introduction to Home Air-Conditioning Systems in India

Last Updated: 10th June, 2017
Contents

With the advent of the summers, we need to be equipped with amenities to combat the oppressive heat of the season. We are here to help you make your decision.

A hot day in summer is sultry and scorching thereby making us perspire. One wishes to take a cold bath again and again. But even then, there is no respite. The atmosphere is stifling with the high amount of humidity. Earth is dry and parched as the sun burns the brightest at this time of the year (red hot). It is as hot as the fire itself. Hot winds blow day in and day out draining everyone of what little energy they have in such an abhorrent weather.

The trees and plants remain unmoving and stationary as they watch the blistering heat make birds and beasts gasp for breath and mercy. The sun turns hotter and hotter as noon nears and the ambience becomes increasingly insolent. As the star of our solar system ascends, the mercury in thermometers is on the rise as well.

The bazars are hushed of their usual enthusiastic humming of activities. Everyone seems to be wearing a cloak of distress and suffocation. Fans are of little help, as they continuously circulate the same stifling air around the room. Even a few minutes of walking on the road seems to charred us down. Individuals abstain from going out amidst the piercing heat. Agricultural workers quit working in the fields. Individuals attempt to keep themselves inside in the luxury of their air-conditioned abodes. The ones who need to go out, cover themselves with thick garments and sun glasses to protect their eyes. To avoid the heat, people shut their doors and windows. Indeed, even creatures conceal themselves in shade to keep away from warmth of the summers. In rural areas, buffaloes can be seen neck-deep soaked in lakes, rivers and ponds. They do as such to escape warmth.

Nonetheless, science and innovation has reduced the seriousness of the hot summer. It has made our lives rather simple and agreeable.

1. Air Conditioners

The man behind the aeration and cooling systems that exist today is Willis H. Carrier, father of the modern air conditioners. His moment of discovery came while working for a publishing organization in Brooklyn. His intention was to build up a machine to help control the temperature and humidity, which was bringing on issues in printing right hues. Carrier's answer for this issue was the air conditioner.

air conditioner

Working of an air conditioner

Air conditioners and fridges work in a similar way. Rather than cooling only the little, insulated space within an icebox, an AC cools a room, an entire house, or a whole business.

Aeration and cooling systems utilize chemicals ( Eg: Freon) that easily change over from a gas to a fluid and vice versa ( low boiling point). This substance is utilized to exchange warm from the air within a home to the outside air.

The machine has three primary parts. They are a compressor, a condenser and an evaporator. The compressor and condenser are typically situated on the outside air portion of the air conditioner. The evaporator is situated within the house. An AC has two arrangements of coils, one for the hot Freon gas and the other for the cool Freon gas. air conditioning systems, the hot gas coils are outside in a consolidating or condensing unit, while the cool gas coils are inside the building. A compressor packs the cool gas into hot gas, which goes through the coils and cools into a fluid. This fluid goes through a valve (known as an extension valve), which transforms the fluid into icy gas. The chilly gas goes through the second set of coils which permits the Freon gas to take up the warmth and cool the air inside the building.

working of an air conditioner

How to buy the right air conditioner for your home?

It's getting more sultry by the day. Air coolers are good, yet they just add to the moistness, which makes the late spring months excrutiating. One of the best choices then is to introduce an air conditioner in your home. However, how? The appropriate response is basic. Begin searching for the Right air conditioner for your home. A right sized AC is the one that you purchase remembering the measure of your room, surrounding atmosphere, measure of light coming into the room, zone of windows, course of windows, level at which your home is, number of individuals possessing the room, number of lights and PCs in the room, etc. Complex! isn’t it?

Here is a simple manual to help you purchase the Right AC (air conditioner):

1. Tonnage: Is greater the better?

Ton or Tonnage measures the cooling limit of an air conditioner according to the size and necessity of the room. A thumb rule utilized universally is that for each square foot, you require 20 Btu/hr (British Thermal Units every hour). The cooling limit of an AC is its capacity to remove a specific measure of warmth from a room in 60 minutes, which is measured in Btu/hr (British warm unit/hour). The AC is thought to be all the more effective when the Btu/hr value is higher. The Btu for an AC ordinarily runs from 5,000 to 24,000, with 12,000 Btu being proportional to one ton.

With regards to air conditioners, greater is not really better – a larger than usual air-conditioner is less powerful and less energy efficient. In the event that the unit is too huge, it will cool the room rapidly, however just evacuate a portion of the dampness, leaving the room clammy. A right sized unit expels dampness viably as it cools. With a specific end goal to cool a room consistently while augmenting effectiveness, the delivery of the cooled air ought to be conveyed to the focal point of the room as opposed to one side or the other.

Here is an approximation to assist you in picking the right sized AC for your room:

2. Split or Window AC?

3. Compressor

The most basic part of an AC is its compressor. Basically, these are of three sorts—reciprocating, rotary and scroll. Reciprocating compressors are generally utilized as a part of little to medium frameworks, for example, auto ACs, and are massive and uproarious. Rotary units are minimal and less loud, while scroll compressors are the calmest and most effective of the three. In any case, the last two are costlier and are likewise hard to repair.

4. Energy Efficiency and Star Rating

A unit with a higher star rating is more costly than the one with less stars. However, it will likewise devour less power and cut down on power utilization while sparing energy and being more sensitive to the environment. In India, an AC keeps running for around 252 days on an average. The BEE rates apparatuses from 1 to 5 stars. A 5 star AC is the most energy proficient and expends the least energy while moderating energy and definitely lessening your power bills. But you ought to consider a 5 star evaluated item just when the use is high to a great extent.

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2. Air Coolers

An evaporative cooler (also swamp cooler, desert cooler and wet air cooler) is a gadget that cools air through the dissipation of water. Evaporative cooling varies from run of the mill aerating and cooling frameworks, which utilize vapor-pressure or retention refrigeration cycles. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's extensive enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped drastically through phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation). This can cool air using comparatively lesser electricity than refrigeration. In immensely dry atmospheres, evaporative cooling of air has the additional advantage of furnishing the air with more dampness for the solace of the occupants.

The cooling potential for evaporative cooling is reliant on the wet bulb sag, the distinction between dry-bulb temperature and wet-bulb temperature. In bone-dry climates, evaporative cooling can considerably reduce consumption of energy for cooling and serve as an aggregate equipment for conditioning as an alternative to compressor-based cooling. In atmospheres not considered arid, indirect evaporative cooling can utilise the evaporative cooling process without expanding mugginess.  Passive evaporative cooling strategies offer similar advantages of mechanical evaporative cooling frameworks without the multifaceted nature of gear and ventilation work.

Working of an air cooler

Coordinate evaporative cooling. Coordinate evaporative cooling (open circuit) is utilized to bring down the temperature and increase the moisture content of air by utilizing latent heat of evaporation, changing the fluid state water to water vapor. In this process, the energy in the air does not change . Warm dry air is changed to cool sodden air.

There are a variety of different types of coolers to suit your need they are as follows:

Type Description Key Points
Desert Coolers These are large units designed for cooling large spaces. They generally have water storage capacities of 40 litres and above and come with caster wheels to help move them around. Desert coolers are great for outdoors too.
  • Very productive for very hot , dry regions as they come in higher storage capacities and can work for long hours.
  • Occupies a lot of space.
Personal Coolers These are small, compact and portable units which can be placed next to your sofa or table and are meant for cooling smaller spaces or specific areas of your room.
  • They also consume lesser energy and are quieter as compared to desert coolers
Tower Coolers Tower coolers are slimmer, sleek and have high aesthetic appeal.
  • Highly portable and require little maintenance.
  • They occupy lesser space on the floor due to their compact tower shape.
Window Coolers They are installed in a window or set in a wall. This variety is much like a window AC, so it doesn’t take up any room space.
  • Window coolers utilise only about 1/10th of the energy that is used by an air conditioner.

Given below are some considerable differences between air coolers and air conditioners.

Parameters Air coolers Air conditioners
Indoor air quality Fresh, filtered and refreshing cool air. Re- circulated dry air.
Cooling agents Water from tap or any other source. Coolants / refrigerants.
Maintenance Easy, simple and cost effective. In case of damage, parts are available at a comparatively cheap price. Complex and more expensive. In case of damage, repair is costly.
Portability Yes. Can only be taken to different places if it is detached from the wall.
Usage Indoor and outdoor. Indoor only.
Cooling The cooling effect of an air cooler cannot combat the high temperatures of tropical countries like India especially the southern parts of the country. Air conditioners provide respite from the fiery heat of the sum and dampness.
Refilling Water needs to be refilled in the tank often and if this is not done at the right time it may damage the machine. No refilling.
Emissions Water vapour ( environmental friendly). High carbon emission ( responsible for global warming).
Capital cost Low and inexpensive. High and expensive.
Weather conditions Does not perform well in humid conditions. Functions well at all times of the year.

How to buy the right air cooler for your home?

Air coolers, likewise alluded as EVAPOR ATIVE / DESERT AIR COOLERS , are less expensive and productive for cooling a room. They function admirably in dry ranges however are not successful in humid atmospheres. Inspite of the fact that the air conditioners have supplanted air coolers nowadays, the general population still like to utilize coolers for home. Hence, air coolers that have kept up their demand in the market.

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3. Portable Air Conditioners

Air conditioners basically pump out the warm air, process it, and pump it back as cool air. This is as opposed to the normal myth that air conditioners suck the warm air and get cool air. Warm air is just reused and acquired as cool air.

Working of a portable air conditioner

The working guideline of portable air conditioners is indistinguishable to that of an icebox or refrigerator. It makes use of the phenomenon of evaporation of coolants like freon, to give cooling. Making of such a device comprises a compressor, an indoor regulator, cooling loops, protection and so on. The compressor packs the freon gas which is at first a chilly gas, to form the hot freon gas which courses through the insulated coils. Its warmth depletes while flowing through the coil and gathers into fluid freon. This fluid freon goes through an expansion valve where the evaporation happens. The fluid freon again turns into cool freon gas and the cycle continues rehashing. This cool gas is then made to go through an arrangement of a few loops or coils. The loops take away all the heat from the gas, in this manner lessening the temperature of the room.

Versatile air conditioners additionally act as dehumidifiers by taking overabundance water from the air. This water is then used to cool the cooling loops and after that released through a hose. Reusing of water makes them perform at a high productivity level. They likewise have a channel, that keeps away soil, dust and so forth.

Venting Standards

Inspite of the fact that portable air conditioners can be introduced in any place, venting is important to do with the warm air. A large portion of the air conditioners accompany a window venting innovation which can be additionally changed according to your requirements. Standard estimations suggested for a hose is around 5 to 7 feet long and around 5 inches in distance across (diameter). It ought to likewise give most extreme adaptability.

Compact air conditioners are most famous among individuals who need to invest long time duration working outdoors. They are an incredible method for providing a whiff of cool, natural air wherever you go.

Enumerated below are some of the pros and cons between portable air conditioners and evaporative coolers:

Portable Air Conditioners Evaporative Coolers
Pros
1. Easy to manoeuvre- can be moved from room to room. 1. Portable, compact and can be easily moved from area to the next with ease.
2. Ideal for areas that can’t accommodate permanent AC installation. 2. Uses significantly less electricity than an AC for the same sized room ( at times upto 75% less)
3. Can be up to 50% more energy efficient than some central air conditioning systems due to the fact that only certain rooms are cooled. 3. Inexpensive to purchase, install and maintain.
4. Great for humid climates- portable AC also dehumidifies the air. 4. Adds moisture to the air in dry climates and prevents fabric and furniture warping or drying out.
Cons
1. Must be vented with a hose to the outside. 1. Can use a large amount of water to provide cooling and requires constant maintenance.
2. Can be slightly more expensive than a central AC or mini split AC system with similar cooling capacity. 2. Best suited for dry climates; high humidity levels can cause condensation and accelerated corrosion.
3. Portable ACs make noise as they have internal motorized fans as well as motorized compressor systems that cool and circulate the air. Hence it is preferable to purchase the portable ac with special features like sleep mode, programmable timer and multiple speeds. 3. They may case breathing problems for asthma patients ( if it is very humid).

How to select the right portable air conditioner for your house?

Air conditioner is the most important and useful home appliance in every household. Besides keeping the room temperature low, it also keeps your body and mind cool and fresh in the hot summers. There are three types of air conditioning systems available in the market- window ac, split ac and portable ac. Portable AC is an easy, energy efficient and simple alternative to conventional window air conditioning systems or split units.

They are very compact portable cooling system which quickly cool and dehumidify the room and also provide you the flexibility to move them anywhere from one room to another room in the house. They have wheels and built-in handles and are usually 2.5 feet to 3 feet height. They do not require permanent wall installation but they require a window or a sliding door to vent out the exhaust system.

They are suitable to cool the specific areas and are mainly used in small bedrooms, in apartments, offices, garages and server rooms where the room temperature is hot because of lack of proper ventilation or poor air circulation and the possibility of getting window ac installed is nearly nil. Most portable ac models have features like auto timer, self-evaporative systems, multiple operating modes, remote control, dehumidifier mode, variable fan speeds, specialized air filters systems, auto start function, to name a few. They provide the best cooling solutions in case of small and rented houses.

There are certain major advantages of portable ACs like:

With the summer setting afoot, along with the desire to stay cool and away from the despised heat, we try to optimise our electricity bills, get a product that best suits our needs and be convinced that what has been purchased is the best for your household. This is essential for holistic solace. Hence, it is important to access the pros and cons of the various cooling devices to make an informed choice. Hope this article was of help.

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